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Our consultants regularly engage in research activities related to our normal client services. This archive includes the majority of the published technical papers, presentations, and other publications related to this research.

Evolving criteria for research facilities: vibration

ABSTRACT The paper presents a review of generic vibration criteria used for vibration-sensitive technical facilities. The paper reviews the logic behind and evolution of the Vibration Criterion (VC) curves, originally known as the “BBN” criteria, and discusses the background of a generic criterion in common usage for nanotechnology, currently denoted NIST-A. The criteria are compared […]...
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Vibrations of Raised Access Floors

Raised access floors play a critical role in modern cleanroom design. They have unique mechanical properties that make them respond to dynamic loading in a manner quite different from conventional floors. For example, an unbraced floor is much more flexible horizontally than in the vertical direction. Horizontal vibration amplitudes with walker excitation may exceed 100 […]...
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Facility Vibration Issues for Nanotechnology Research

The paper presents an overview of the vibration requirements of nanotechnology facilities, drawn from both the semiconductor world and that of precision metrology. Structural approaches are discussed which are commonly used to meet some of the special vibration needs of these facilities. H. Amick, M. Gendreau, and C. G. Gordon, “Facility Vibration Issues for Nanotechnology […]...
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Generic Vibration Criteria for Vibration-Sensitive Equipment

The vibration criterion (VC) curves, commonly used in the design of facilities which house vibration-sensitive instruments and tools, were developed by the author and his colleagues, in the early 80's, published by SPIE in 1991 and by IEST in 1993. Each of the criterion curves A through E is associated with a "line width" or […]...
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Vibration issues in Facility Refurbishing

Vibration is a major source of contamination in any Fab facility and can have disastrous effects on plant output. When a Fabrication plant needs to be updated, the existing structure of the buildings may require extensive alteration to meet the new criteria of future operation. The sources of vibration both external and internal to the […]...
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Noise and Vibration Characteristics of Cleanroom Fan-Filter Units

Fan-filter units are an increasingly popular alternative to packaged air handlers and fan-tower recirculation air systems. They are used in mini-environments and general cleanrooms, especially in retrofit cleanrooms with limited height. This paper presents noise and vibration data measured on 8 fan-filter units. It also presents measurement methods and performance criteria for fan-filter units. Colin […]...
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Noise of Cleanroom Recirculation Air Systems

The commonly used recirculation air systems for microelectronics cleanrooms are described in this paper. The sound attenuation along the air flow paths are discussed along with noise control concerns. Also presented are the typical sound pressure levels measured in operating cleanrooms. Mei Q. Wu and Colin G. Gordon, "Noise of Cleanroom Recirculation Air Systems," (with […]...
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Dynamics of Advanced Technology Facilities: A Historical Perspective

The purpose of this paper is to set in perspective some of the issues involved in the dynamic of advanced technology facilities. By dynamics we mean vibration performance and vibration response. Through much of the paper, attention is focused on the microelectronics industry since vibration here is of critical importance and since this industry, more […]...
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Vibration Control in Microelectronics Cleanrooms

In this tutorial we shall try to unravel some of the mysteries of cleanroom vibration: sources; methods of propagation; measurements; criteria and specifications; control and isolation.  The plan is to provide attendees with some of the tools necessary to understand the issues involved in vibration control.  Colin Gordon, “Vibration Control in Microelectronics Cleanrooms,” tutorial given […]...
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Vibration Prediction and Control in Microelectronics Facilities

The importance of vibration in microelectronics production can be appreciated when one considers the extreme sensitivity of the "tools" and systems used in the chip fabrication process and the large amount of mechanical energy that is consumed in a modern cleanroom.  The great difference in the ratio of "power consumed" to "sensitivity" lies at the […]...
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Monitoring Of Vibration in Vibration-Sensitive Facilities

Vibration monitoring is a valuable tool in the operation of facilities which house vibration-sensitive equipment. Monitoring can detect trends in the vibration environment that may signal the need for remedial action before vibration-related problems are encountered. Monitoring is invaluable in situation where construction work is carried out within, or close to, the facility. The monitor […]...
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An investigation of dynamic soil-structure interaction as it relates to the design of foundation systems for microelectronics fabrication facilities

In recent years, vibration has become increasingly important as a factor to consider in the design of microelectronics fabrication facilities. As the demand for higher precision tools increases, the importance of vibration control also increases. In fact, at the present time, many aspects of structure/foundation design are controlled by vibration considerations rather than the traditional […]...
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The Influence of Bases and Benches on the Performance of Vibration-Sensitive Equipment

In most state-of-the-art microelectronics facilities, process equipment (tools), including vibration-sensitive equipment, is set on a structure to bring the equipment to the level of the raised access floor. Depending on their design these bases can amplify, through resonance, the vibration amplitudes that travel from the structural floor to the equipment base. Similarly, benches that are […]...
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Noise Prediction and Control in Microelectronics Clean Rooms

Modern clean rooms of the sort used by the microelectronics industry in the fabrication of integrated circuits are typically quite noisy with levels lying in the range PNC 55 to 75. The noise can degrade the performance of production and test equipment. It also interferes with speech and telephone use and adds generally to the […]...
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Specifying and Interpreting a Site Vibration Evaluation

Many pieces of semiconductor production and test equipment are highly sensitive to vibration. Equipment manufacturers often provide environmental vibration limits and recommend, even require, a site vibration evaluation prior to installation of a system. Suppose a company is planning to install one of these systems. What does the manufacturer's vibration specification really mean? What should […]...
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The Design of Low-Vibration Buildings Two Case Histories

Two case histories are presented that illustrate two aspects of the design problems.  The first is entitled “The Role of Special Foundations in the Design of Low Vibration Buildings.”  The Second is entitled “The Role of Sprung Floors in the Design of Low Vibration Environments.” Colin G. Gordon, “The Design of Low-Vibration Buildings Two Case […]...
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The Design of Low-Vibration Buildings for Microelectronics and Other Occupancies

In this paper I present an overview of the factors and problems that must be considered in designing low-vibration buildings. Subjects covered include vibration criteria for different occupancies, sources of vibration and response predictions, and major design factors for vibration control. Colin G. Gordon, “The Design of Low-Vibration Buildings for Microelectronics and Other Occupancies,” First […]...
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A Study of Low-Frequency Ground Vibration in Widely Differing Geographic Areas

The low-frequency ambient vibration existing on the ground is an important parameter in the siting of buildings that will contain equipment and processes that are sensitive to vibration. Such equipment is commonly used in "wafer fabrication plants" in which integrated circuit "micro-chips" are manufactured. Over the past 10 years or so, BBN Laboratories has undertaken […]...
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Cost-Effective Design of Practically Vibration-Free High-Technology Facilities

Advanced electro-optical equipment, such as that used in the production of integrated circuits, requires clean environments with extremely limited vibrations.  Ground motions, personnel activities, and mechanical equipment tend to produce unacceptably severe vibrations in high-technology facilities, unless suitable precautions are taken. Ungar, E. E., and Gordon, C. G., “Cost-Effective Design of Practically Vibration-Free High-Technology Facilities,” […]...
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Vibration Criteria for Microelectronics Manufacturing Equipment

The trend toward integrated circuits consisting of smaller, more tightly packed, elements has led to the requirement for greater precision and stability in microelectronics manufacturing and inspection equipment.  There exists the need for a better quantitative understanding of the effects of environmental vibrations on this type of equipment, in order to enable microelectronics facility designers […]...
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Vibration Challenges in Microelectronics Manufacturing

The manufacture of smaller, more tightly packed, integrated circuits requires facilities designed to meet stringent vibration requirements.  Vibration control is complicated by the need for extensive process support equipment and some service personnel in the vicinity of the sensitive machines.  Facility criteria that have been developed on the basis of earlier facility experience have tended […]...
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Power Transformer Noise—Prediction and Control

Power transformers located in outdoor substations can be a significant source of environmental noise disturbance, especially during nighttime hours.  The dominant characteristic of transformer noise is the low frequency  “hum” generated within the magnetic core as a result of the magnetostrictive properties of the core steel.  The core-generated noise consists of the harmonics of the […]...
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Fan Noise and its Prediction

When designing ventilation systems, one is often unable to obtain very specific details either of the fan to be used or of its noise as measured by the fan manufacturer under controlled conditions.  A number of empirical prediction formulae have been developed in the past and are frequently used by system designers and consultants in […]...
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Noise Generation by Fluid Flow Through Pipes

Much of the mid- and high-frequency noise in process plants derives from the flow of fluids through valves, orifices, and other pipework-located discontinuities.  The myriad of sources involved generates, within the plant, a sound field that is diffuse and uniform.  In this paper the author develops a tentative parametric formulation by which the generalized fluid […]...
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The Problem of Duct-Generated Noise and its Prediction

In this paper we will present some of the more fundamental notions of the phenomena classified as “subsonic aerodynamic noise.”  In light of these, we wish to discuss the mechanisms of noise generation responsible for the self-noise of sound-trap[s, dampers, diffusers and other duct-located flow discontinuities.  Furthermore, we will suggest, on the basis of some […]...
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